ITALY IN SPACE. LOOKING FOR A STRATEGY 1957-1975, Editions BEAUCHESNE

ITALY IN SPACE. LOOKING FOR A STRATEGY 1957-1975



ITALY IN SPACE. LOOKING FOR A STRATEGY 1957-1975
Michelangelo DE MARIA, Lucia ORLANDI
EAN/ISBN : 9782701015187
Année : 2008
59.00 €
About two decades separate the launch of the Sputnik (1957) and the birth of European Space Agency (1975). These two dates are chosen as milestones in order to describe the early history of Italy in space.
In the wake of the Sputnik shock, Italy was very early engaged in a remarkable effort in space matters. Thanks to the brilliant work of the physicist Edoardo Amaldi and the aerospace engineer Luigi Broglio, since the late Fifties Italy moved on towards the building of national space institutions, and at the same time cooperated to the creation of the European space organizations while fostering bilateral cooperation with USA .
The story of the "stop and go" development of the two major national programs, the San Marco project and the SIRIO project, which were the hallmark of about two decades, the Sixties and the Seventies, is reconstructed, following the parallel growth of Italy's engagement in the
scientific as well as institutional activities of European bodies.
For the first time the relations among science, military, politics and economics are explored, in order to understand why the "Italy of records" - the nation which became the first country, following USA and URSS, to put a national satellite into orbit, operated by an all Italian team - betrayed this promising start.
The development of a national aerospace industry and the building of dedicated infrastructures, such as the equatorial launching base and the telemetry and tracking ground stations, represent very relevant results of the pioneering phase of the Italian enterprise in space; nonetheless, the
lack of a coherent space policy prevented Italy from exploiting space activities as a lever for industrial innovation and economic development.


SOMMAIRE

Preface
Foreword
Abbreviations
Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 1 FROM COSMIC RAYS TO THE START OF SPACE RESEARCH (1946-1958)
By Michelangelo De Maria and Lucia Orlando, with contributions of Lorenza Sebesta and Alberto Traballesi
Introduction
1. Italy's role in European cosmic ray research partnerships
I.1.1. Cosmic ray research groups in Italy
I.1.2. The international partnerships within the context of the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN)
2. Italy and the International Geophysical Year (IGY)
I.2.1. The IGY in Italy
I.2.2. The CNIAGI Cosmic Ray Group
I.2.3. Italian scientific research and US Air Force research : the first partnership attempts
I.2.4. The contribution made by the State Administration and the Air Force's Meteorological Service
3. The military and space
I.3.1. Missile production in Europe and the introduction of tactical missiles into NATO's defence system
I.3.2. Space as a new scene for cooperation and conflict : the consequences of the launch of the Sputnik
I.3.3. Military and engineers at work : new facilities and centres for space studies in Italy

CHAPTER 2 ITALIAN SPACE POLICY BETWEEN INTERNAL RENOVATION AND EXTERNAL CHALLENGES AT THE TURN OF THE DECADE (1957-1963)
By Lorenza Sebesta
1. Italian space policy in the international context after Sputnik
II.1.1. The post-Sputnik era : the new symbolic value of space
II.1.2. A NATO Satellite for science ?
II.1.3. The first instances of US-Italian cooperation in space
2. The national context : institutional developments, scientific research and industry in the space field
II.2.1. The creation of new instruments for managing research: from the Commissione per le ricerche spaziali (CRS) to the first attempts to set up a Ministry for Scientific Research and Technology
II.2.2. The CRS and the difficult take-off of space science in Italy
II.2.3. The origins of the space industry in Italy
3. The European dimension : a political answer to the industrial and scientific needs of the Italian space policy
II.3.1. The first European discussions : Amaldi's role in the birth of ESRO
II.3.2. Italy and ESRO's first steps
II.3.3. Here come the launchers : ELDO and Italy

CHAPTER 3 THE SAN MARCO PROJECT (1961-1967)
By Michelangelo De Maria
1. Origins of the San Marco project
III.1.1. The San Marco project takes shape
III.1.2. The institutional establishment of the San Marco project
III.1.3. Scientific objectives of the San Marco project
2. Phase 1 (1962-1964) : The take-off of the San Marco project
3. The San Marco Marine Mobile Range and its validation
4. The launch of the satellites (1964-1967)
III.4.1. Phase 2 of the San Marco project (1964-1965)
III.4.2. Phase 3 of the San Marco project (1965-1967)
5. The political economy of the San Marco project
III.5.1. The contrast between the national programme and European cooperation
III.5.2. From CNR to CRA : the change of the institutional setting

CHAPTER 4 ITALY, ESRO AND ELDO
By Filippo Pigliacelli
1. From national constraints to international propensities : Italian scientific cooperation policies in a historic and political context
IV.1.1. The political context
IV.1.2. The end of the "boom" and the "missed opportunities"
2. Italy, space and the technological gap
IV.2.1. Space and the technological gap
IV.2.2. Italian scientific policy and the space sector
IV.2.3. The Fanfani Proposals
3. Scientific, political and economic meanings of Italian participation in ESRO and ELDO
IV.3.1. Italy, ESRO and ELDO. A political (and economic) interpretation
IV.3.2. Scientific participation
4. The progress of the national aerospace industry
IV.4.1. The emergence of the aerospace industry and the role of industry associations (AIA and ANIE)
IV.4.2. The participation of national industries in the ESRO and ELDO programmes
5. A case study : ESRIN
IV.5.1. The birth of ESRIN
IV.5.2. The ESRIN activities
IV.5.3. The crisis (1971-July 1972)

CHAPTER 5 ITALY AND SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS: THE SIRIO PROJECT
By Lucia Orlando
1. SIRIO, a tortuous way to the communications satellites
V.1.1. Policy, economy and organization of scientific research : the critical context of the SIRIO project
V.1.2. The influence of the European context on the way Italy entered satellite communications
V.1.3. Italian national space programmes at stake: San Marco versus SIRIO ?
2. The SIRIO story
V.2.1. The start : 1968-1971
V.2.2. SIRIO in the mist : 1972-1974
V.2.3. Towards a solution
V.2.4. Aerospace industries at stake
V.2.5. The final effort : the race against OTS
3. Epilogue

CHAPTER 6 THE DIFFICULT DEVELOPMENT OF THE SAN MARCO PROJECT (1968-1975)
By Michelangelo De Maria and Lucia Orlando
1. Introduction
2. The legacy of the San Marco II satellite
3. The San Marco range in full action
4. SAS-A (Uhuru) and the development of X-ray astronomy
VI.4.1. Uhuru : Broglio's tool for a new thrust to the San Marco project
VI.4.2. Uhuru's scientific results
5. The San Marco C satellite (San Marco III)
6. Satellites and rockets from the San Marco range (1971-1975)
VI.6.1. The launch of the SSS-A and the sounding rocket campaign (1971-1973)
VI.6.2. Meanwhile, the launch of the SAS-B satellite
VI.6.3. The satellite of the "Austerity" : San Marco IV (San Marco C-2)
VI.6.4. The UK-5 (Ariel-5) satellite
7. Hopes and disillusions: the difficult take off of the San Marco D satellite programme
8. A tentative balance

CHAPTER 7 A SURVEY ON THE GROUND STATIONS IN ITALY
By Michelangelo De Maria and Lucia Orlando, with contributions of Maria Pia Bumbaca
1. Telecommunications, telemetry and tracking : the story of Telespazio
2. Telespazio and Intelsat
3. The exploitation of a traditional activity : scientific research with sounding balloons

CHAPTER 8 THE ITALIAN AIR FORCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE ACTIVITIES
By Alberto Traballesi
1. The School of Aerospace Engineering and the Centro Ricerche Aerospaziali (Centre for Aerospace Research)
2. The missile programmes and the Poligono Sperimentale e di Addestramento Interforze (Experimental and Training Inter-arms Range) of Salto di Quirra
VIII.2.1. The first experiences with missiles
VIII.2.2. The creation of the launching range of Salto di Quirra in Sardinia
VIII.2.3. The launch campaign of teleguided missiles
VIII.2.4. The first scientific utilization of Salto di Quirra : the C 41 rocket probe
VIII.2.5. The joint AMI/CNR programme and collaboration with NASA
VIII.2.6. Meteorological research
VIII.2.7. The GRILLO steam rocket
VIII.2.8. The activities of the army units
3. ESRO and the launching range of Salto di Quirra 247
4. The Italian Navy's MMI missile activities 251
VIII.4.1. The TERRIER system
5. The ALFA missile
6. The Italian Air Force and the San Marco project
Glossary
Index of names




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